Träume (Ausgewählte Schriften 1) (German Edition)
Brandes was also well acquainted with German philosophy, and in particular with Hegel, whose philosophy at that time was central to the university curriculum in Denmark and left its mark in Main Currents. The six volumes of Main Currents cover European literature from to , focusing on the driving forces of European culture and literature during a period which was still undergoing fervent change.
All three phases are marked by the tidal movement of a reactionary pull and an emancipatory push in a dynamic complexity that finds multiple literary expressions within a dialectical quasi-Hegelian framework: Do not misunderstand me as though I took reaction as such to be a backwards step. Far from it! Quite the contrary! A true, comprehensive and corrective reaction means progress. But a reaction like that is forceful, short and does not degenerate. After for some time having fought the excesses of the previous epoch, after having exposed what then was suppressed, it incorporates the valuable elements from the previous period, comes to terms with it and continues its movement.
But this is not what happened here [after ]. The translation of this ideological program into critical practice opened up a new way of both thinking and writing about literary history, exemplified in the six volumes: Emigrant Literature [Emigrantlitteraturen] , The Romantic School in Germany [Den romantiske Skole i Tydskland] , The Reaction in France [Reaktionen i Frankrig] , Naturalism in England [Den engelske Naturalisme] naturalism refers to nature poetry , The Romantic School in France [Den romantiske Skole i Frankrig] , and Young Germany [Det unge Tyskland] When Brandes pointed in the preface to the mixed reception of the first volumes, he put his finger on exactly that point.
The aim of his undertaking was not to compile an anthology of accumulated essays on separate national literatures, nor did he want to offer a survey of quasi-causal links between individual texts and authors reaching across national boundaries and to turn them into ideal models. Instead, Brandes shifted from one country or one chronological slice in one volume to another in the next, and then back again, always zooming in on the cultural space where the development of the transnational driving forces in a particular moment appeared to be most forceful.
He looked for the troubled tidal wave of the quest for freedom where it had the most decisive impact at a certain time, in a certain place, in a certain genre or through a certain literary movement. France, Germany and England stand out as the shifting centers of this process, other literatures being rather its result than its impetus. At the age of thirty he was already formed as a comparatist with a focus on literature, old or new, as a cultural force in a contemporary perspective; but also as a comparatist who bridged between literary studies and topics of a broader cultural and political nature.
He was also a comparatist in search of a method, here outlined through his own critical practice as the construction of authors' portraits, mostly inspired by Hippolyte Taine, with whom he studied in Paris during —67, but also by Charles Sainte Beuve.
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From Berlin, Poland, Russia and Greece he wrote book-length travel accounts in which literary and historical surveys are combined with political analyses and reports in reviews, articles and columns Samlede He took up residence in Berlin from to , but also stayed for extended periods of time in France and Italy. Through comments on literary works and cultural life elsewhere on the globe he also included Asia, the Middle East, New Zealand and South America.
Through his extensive correspondence with international personalities as well as with young authors from all over the world who sought his advice on revision or publication of manuscripts, he often had first-hand records of the places he referred to in his literary criticism and in cultural and political debate. In France he was at home in the circles of the cultural and political elite, having Georges Clemenceau and Anatole France among others as his personal friends. Brandes' works are not widely translated into French, compared to the many editions and re-editions in German and English.
His rebellious stance was applauded in China in the post-imperial cultural transition after , with Lu Xun as a central mediator and based on Japanese, English and notably German translations. Also, Brandes' repeated lecture tours to England from the s and his visit to the United States had positive receptions in spite of the deficiencies of his spoken English, and already in the University of Chicago had offered him a chair.
Nevertheless, Brandes never met with universal approval, and particularly in Denmark and Germany his reputation never ceased to oscillate between negative and positive extremes. Through his affiliation with the Danish daily Politiken , founded in by his brother Edvard among others, he sided with the political left. After a heated public debate he was turned down in for a chair in comparative literature at the University of Copenhagen, but from he was given the right to take the title of professor.
The contemporary importance of literature and criticism remained crucial to Brandes. Whenever possible he corrected and adapted re-editions and translations of his work for the situation in which they were now published. But more importantly, Brandes also adopted new ideas to further qualify his idea of individual freedom and historical dynamics.
In the s he read the then unknown Friedrich Nietzsche. Here he found an answer to his key problem: how are the fermenting ideas of cultural progress turned into great art and how can we study this process?
Von Bosch bis Beckmann. Ausgewählte Schriften.
His answer was drawn directly from Nietzsche: through the great and unique personalities of history, transcending their own time. The first study not only stresses the importance of transgressive individual freedom from cultural constraints, but also underlines the right of the superior human being to bypass those constraints by suspending certain moral and democratic principles. Here Brandes developed a comparative method and a genre: the monograph portraying great authors and historical personalities. He composed a series of huge monographs on representative individuals who have been instrumental in the unfolding of human history, an effect that charges their works with contemporary significance.
With the shift in focus from the historical processes in Main Currents to the great individuals behind the processes, a scent of hero-worshipping can be detected as more than a mere whiff, although Brandes stressed the endurance of their greatness rather than its superiority. The first of the major monographs, William Shakespeare , is also the first comprehensive study of Shakespeare's work in its entirety.
The English translation of saw many reprints and paved the way for a translation of Main Currents in —5. Through meticulous readings of Shakespeare's entire work, focusing on the characters, Brandes constructs Shakespeare as a personality, more complex than heroic, who becomes a prism for larger historical processes and thereby remains as contemporary as any modern writer.
This type of portrait also showed Brandes as capable of crafting a good story for a broad readership.
His numerous talks for both learned and unspecialized audiences at home and abroad earned him a deserved reputation as an engaged, at times even a charismatic speaker. Brandes' monograph on Goethe ends with the following words: When Goethe died the term World Literature , which he had created, had become a reality and through the united efforts of many people he had himself become the center of world literature.
But the globalized perspective permeates his entire work, and has an increasing presence from the end of the nineteenth century. Particularly in his lesser known and smaller texts, Brandes anticipated some of the essential points of discussions that are now central to the study of world literature. For a start Brandes reminds us of the progress of science as a global intellectual process and of the travelogues of nineteenth-century scientific expeditions.
He adds that advances in transportation, communication, the modern press, and also translations accelerated the global process. There is no universal idealism at work here, as in Goethe, but concrete, globalized cultural encounters and interactions. He defined world literature as a locally anchored literature that transcends its local constraints and opens the local perspective to a larger world. Some works will be translated, others not, some of them are written in languages which at present are expanding languages, others not. But the heart of the matter is the opening up of the local perspective towards the diversity of the translocal world.
If something is written in order to be marketed as world literature, it is therefore highly probable that it is completely irrelevant. The world literature of the future will become all the more captivating the more the mark of the national appears in it and the more heterogeneous it becomes, as long as it retains a universally human aspect as art and science. Brandes' earlier characterization of comparative studies in the image of a telescopic dual perspective corresponds to this dialectics: we can, and must, look at literature from two alternating or rather complementary positions, through both the magnifying and the diminishing lenses.
The reason to study literature in a world literature perspective does not derive from an immanent literary or aesthetic point of departure. When literature, old or new, today circulates in a diverse global culture of translocal exchanges and conflicts this perspective becomes the necessary point of departure for literary studies. Brandes could not agree more.
But his approach to literature as a battlefield of ideas became increasingly historically concrete during his six years in Berlin, when he saw the nationalism of the rising Germany under Kaiser Wilhelm. Already in articles and reports from the s he was warning against the consequences of militant nationalism. He clearly recognized the frightening prospect: not just another war in the world, but the world itself at war. His ironic rhetorical analysis of the emperor's speech in July to German volunteer troops bound for China can still serve as a model for how to debunk pompous rhetoric in global politics Samlede 74— Collected Works.
Individual Works in German. WB in English: Books. From to , he was also a director of the The German type design scene - Luc Devroye Links to German typography and type design. Search this site. Kaluza PDF Download. PDF Download. Nilakos PDF Download.
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Von Bosch bis Beckmann. Ausgewählte Schriften.
Dieses eBook ist mit interaktiven Inhalt und Begleitinformationen versehen, einfach zu navigieren und gut gegliedert. Excerpt from I. I: A Prisoner's Story of the Cross He stood for a moment after making the announce ment, and then went back into the house. A few isolated exclamations came from the crowd.
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We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works. He was the son of a peasant. Until his seventeenth year he was employed as a farm hand and received no regular school education, though he learnt reading and writing from a retired schoolmaster who lived near. On the occasion of the centenary of its reorganization the University of Heidelberg conferred upon him, in , the honorary degree of doctor of philosophy.
Unfit, owing to physical weakness, for the hard labour of agriculture, he was apprenticed to a journeyman tailor, and on his wanderings employed his leisure hours in educating himself. He soon composed poems and wrote stories. Some of these productions he sent in to Dr Svoboda, the editor of the Graz Tagespost, who, recognizing Rosegger's extraordinary talent, interested himself in the young author, and with the assistance of friends enabled him to study from - 69 at the Handelsakademie of Graz. In , encouraged by Robert Hamerling, Rosegger published his first work, a volume of poems in Styrian dialect, Zither und Hackbrett, which immediately established his reputation.
As a result, the provincial diet of Styria accorded him a substantial stipendium scholarship for three years, which enabled him to supplement his studies by foreign travel. He now devoted himself entirely to authorship.
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His fresh natural style, sound judgment and his fascinating descriptions of Alpine scenery and the life of its inhabitants have made him one of the most popular authors of Austria and Germany. These characteristics are displayed to great advantage in Die Schriften des Waldschulmeisters , Aus meinem Handwerkerleben , Alpengeschichten , Als ich nochjung war , and in the love- story Mann und Weib , while his simple religious mind is shown in Mein Ilimmelreich , Erdsegen and Das ewige Licht , and his attachment to friends in Cute Kameraden and Personliche Erinnerungen an Robert Hamerling